The process of fertilization involves a sperm fusing with an ovum. The most common sequence begins with ejaculation during copulation, follows with ovulation, and finishes with fertilization. Various exceptions to this sequence are possi, including artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, external ejaculation without copulation, or copulation shortly after ovulation.

Upon encountering the secondary produces enzymes which allow it to burrow through the outer jelly coat of the egg. The sperm plasma then fuses with the egg’s plasma membrane, the sperm head disconnects from its flagellum and the egg travels down the fallopian tube to reach the uterus. 

Fertilization is the event most commonly used to make the zero point in description of prenatal development of the embryo or fetus. Gestational age, in contrast, takes the beginning of the last menstrual period (LMP) as the zero point. By conversation, gestational age is calculated by adding 14 days to fertilization age and vice versa.

In fact, however, fertilization usually occurs within a day of ovulation, which, inturn, occurs on average 14.6 days after the begof the preceding menstruation (LMP). There is also considerable variability in this interval, with a 95%prediction interval of the ovulation of 9 to 20 days after menstruation even for an average woman who has a mean LMP- to- ovulation time of 14.6. In a reference group representing all women’s the 95% prediction interval of the LMP- to- ovulation is 8.2 to 20.5 days.

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